Plastic Industry – Types of Machinery Used in It

The most common material used for manufacturing different elements is plastic. As there has been a rapid increase in plastic production, a variety of machines can carry out many specialized and unique tasks.

An efficient plastic manufacturing machine is required to yield high-quality plastic products. Plastic machinery includes a wide and broad category of equipment. Plastic manufacturing companies use different machines for producing different articles.

Plastic Machinery
Plastic Machinery

These machines yield the following products: eye drops and bottle production, plastic medicine along with bottle manufacturing machines, cosmetic bottle yielding machines, shampoo, detergent bottle manufacturing machines, and oil barrel machines.

Some other machines are involved in manufacturing chemical barrels, 5-gallon barrels, bus seats, air tanks, and plastic trays. These products are becoming essential parts of our lives, and so is the need to produce more plastic.

Thus, we can say that plastic is used in almost every industry might it be pharmaceutical packaging, daily chemical packaging, food packaging, chemical packaging, automobiles, or amusement facilities, etc.

Plastic Machinery and Its Types:

Many different types of machines are used in the plastic industry. However, some of the machines hold more significance and importance. Based on their function and processing technology, plastic machinery is classified into three main categories:

  1. The extruder is mainly used to produce the articles having the same cross-sectional area.
  2. The injection molding machine is used to inject the molten plastic.
  3. The blow molding machine is used for the production of plastic products that are thermoplastic and hollow.

1. The extruder:

The plastic items such as rods, profiled materials, and pipes have the same cross-sectional area, so these are produced with the help of an extruder. It is also used to modify and granulate plastic and plastic products.

The main function of an extruder is to melt the plastic with the help of a fixed-shaped extrusion port. The plastic is melted because of the action of a screw. After this, a tractor is employed for cooling purposes and for providing shape.

As the plastic cools down, it is then cut with the help of a screw. The extruder is used to have increased pressure so that huge resistance can be overcome easily. An extruder is capable enough to overcome resistance. This resistance is of three types.

These include feed, feed zone, and the flow resistance. A feed is the resistance face by solid particles that is because of the barrel wall. At the same time, the feed zone is the friction that occurs when the screw revolves in the beginning. Whereas the resistance that arises on the cylinder wall as the molten plastic is moved forward is known as flow resistance.

2. The Injection Molding Machines:

Injecting the melted plastic into a mold gives the product its ultimate and desired shape. The product gains its original shape as it cools down.

An injection molding machine is used for a variety of purposes. The purpose of an injection molding machine depends upon the plastic that is used for production. It is most commonly used in the plastics processing industry.

An injection molding machine is not only used for the production of a huge number of products, but it acts as important equipment in many processes but, most importantly, in the injection stretch.

3. The Blow Molding Machines:

The products such as hollow containers and tube films are produced using this machine. A blow molding machine then plasticizes the preformed product with the help of the heating process. It then allows the product to get into a mold.

High-yield BOPP and PET bottles are manufactured using this process. This process is composed of two steps; blow molding may work with the process of injection molding so that an injection blow integrated machine is created. The blow molding process may work with the extrusion process.

The products produced using these methods are composite films containing multiple layers and some hollow containers. These products are mainly used in different industries, like cosmetics, medicine, and food.

4. The Blowing Machine:

This machine is used for melting and heating plastic made particles. A film then allows them to get inside it. The blowing machine is of different types, such as POF, PE, and many others. If the production of a new particle is required, new material is incorporated.

The product that is formed has a uniform color and is clean. The bag in which this item is produced is flexible and stretches well so that the item can fit inside easily. Sometimes, a recycled plastic bag can be used for making plastic particles.

These plastic particles are referred to as old materials and are grey. But when these are transformed into plastic particles, different pigments are added to them, due to which they have uneven colors and are brittle. They are formed in such a way that they can be broken easily.

The price of these plastic particles is very low as these are recycled plastic bags, but we cannot say that it is a garbage bag. Garbage bags and reusable plastic bags are quite different in many ways.

The working of the film blowing machine depends on three important factors:

  • Temperature ( It includes both the machine temperature as well as indoor temperature)
  • Spirals
  • Cooling system

The film produced by a blowing machine can be used for all types of top of the line film packaging. The film produced by the film blowing machine can be easily incorporated in packaging, whether light or heavy. It acts as a great barrier and can maintain freshness, and is moisture and frost proof. It does not allow oxygen to pass through it and is resistant to oil.

So, these films can be used to packing meat products, fresh fruits, pickles, liquid beverages, medical supplies, fresh milk, etc.

5. Internal Mixer:

A closed plastic mixing machine used for the compounding of plastic is known as the internal mixer. Based on its working procedure, an internal mixer is of two types:

  1. Intermittent internal mixer
  2. Continuous internal mixer

Its main components include the length, rotor speed, total capacity, and internal mixer diameter. Its structure comprises a rotor, an upper top bolt, a transmission system, a lower top bolt, and heating and cooling devices.